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abortion in pakistan wiki

One study in 2002 showed that in areas with 2 or more community-based workers there was a 7% increase in the use of modern, reversible contraceptive methods. A research studies conducted in 2002 and 2003 (by Population Council-Pakistan) reveals that a n estimated 890, 000 induced abortions occur annually in Pakistan. Since 1997 abortions carried out before the unborn child’s organs have been formed are prohibited except when performed in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the woman or providing necessary … "Pakistan: Debating Islam and family planning." However, the large discovery in Karachi shows that many of the female infants were killed because of the local Islamic clerics, who ordered out of wedlock babies should be disregarded. [24], In 2017, two Pakistani organisations discovered large cases of infanticide in Pakistani cities. Pakistan's laws on abortion. [27], In the 1990s, two agencies in Pakistan started village-based community health worker programs in Pakistan. An honor killing is the homicide of a member of a family or social group by other members, due to the belief the victim has brought dishonour upon the family or community. − Whoever, causes woman with child whose organs have not been formed, to miscarry, if such miscarriage is not caused in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the woman, or providing necessary treatment to her, is said to cause isqat-i-haml. There were 118 males per 100 females. In 2009 the Ministry of Population sought to revise the Population Policy. 2004. [18] The conduct of family members reflects upon family honor and the way the family perceives itself, and is perceived by others. In Pakistan, high levels of unmet need (25%) and low levels of contraceptive use (30%) put women at risk for unintended pregnancies. Misoprostol hotline Pakistan, June 2010. The Ministry of Population Welfare started planning a program in 1992 based on a similar program in Bangladesh. [23] The DHS also dispelled the popular notion that religious reasons keep families from using family planning. 1 According to a recent national study, women in Pakistan had an estimated 2.25 million abortions in 2012, equivalent to an abortion rate of 50 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age—nearly double the rate estimated … [5] Though Pakistani couples commonly cite religious reasons for avoiding birth control, there is not one definitive agreement about family planning and contraception in Islam. [12] In Pakistan, extremely conservative Islamic beliefs predominate in many parts of the country, in which purdah restricts women to their homes unless chaperoned by a male relative. "Islam and Family Planning." A more accurate picture will emerge with the release of the data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012. Khan, Ayesha. These murders were cause of such bloody feuds between the clans that it at the length was thought inauspicious to have daughters, and as soon as they were born, they were strangled as Sahiban had been. [1] At present there is no federal ministry of health or population welfare and therefore no population policy. • The proportion of women thought to have complications from abortion procedures performed by traditional birth attendants ranges from 55% among nonpoor urban women to 68% among poor rural women. Hence, a likely reason why so many Pakistani women are self-inducing miscarriages. [1], According to Dr. Ansar Ali Khan, an advisor of reproductive health to the United Nations Population Fund in Pakistan, "A combination of factors like non-availability of services, baseless traditional beliefs and misconception play a big role. [6] Waheed, a member of the All-Pakistan Women's Association, began advocating for birth control when her maid died from an attempt to abort her own pregnancy. Research and Development Solution - Evidence to Policy Action: Briefs on Family Planning, Rahnuma- Family Planning Association of Pakistan, Reproductive endocrinology and infertility, Birth control movement in the United States, Timeline of reproductive rights legislation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Family_planning_in_Pakistan&oldid=997401773, Articles with dead external links from August 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 09:31. In essence it showed that the overall increase in CPR since the previous DHS had been around 1% per annum overall and around 0.5% in modern methods. Extrapolating these results to estimated populations suggest that there are 8.8 million users of any FP, 5.5 million users of modern methods and 3.65 million women who avail FP services in any given year. Female infanticide in Pakistan had been a common practice in the Indo-Pak Subcontinent. [7] Son preference prevails in rural areas, due to male inheritance of agricultural land, and males being seen as better suited to work the land. In 2006–07, the Pakistan Demographic Health Survey of Pakistan (PDHS 2006-7) showed that approximately 30% of married women of reproductive age (MWRA) were using some form of Family Planning. The aim of these services was to reduce the fertility rate and slow population growth. The Ministry of Health (Pakistan) started a similar program in 1994 called "lady health workers." "[7] This ideology is still present in Pakistan, as the organized religious party opposes family planning because it is "un-Islamic". Since a large number of modern method users are sterilized and received the service in a previous year, the actual number women availing any FP service were just under 3 million or less than half of those with an unmet need. In the DHS less than 10% of FP nonusers cited a religious reason for their non-use. In order to avoid such problems related to the honor culture, families reject altogether the idea of having daughters. As many as 72 dead girls have been buried in the first four months of this year by Edhi Foundation alone in the metropolitan city. [30], Rural and Urban Healthcare Disparities That Contribute to Pakistan’s High Child Mortality Rate. The infanticide was mainly almost all … Zia enforced strict laws against adultery (punishable by death), rape, intoxication, and theft. This custom of female infanticide was common among the Kharrals till Colonel Hamilton, Commissioner of Multan, persuaded them to discontinue it. Population Reference Bureau. December 2001. In August last year, a representative from the United … • According to knowledgeable health professionals, women who are seeking clandestine abortions often obtain them from dais(traditional birth attendants) or midlevel providers such as Lady Health Visitors, nurses and midwives—and as a result often experience complications. It has been banned frequently and otherwise limited by law. Changes in CPR between Pakistan DHS 2006 and 2012, "Assessment of a New Approach to Family Planning Services in Rural Pakistan". This program recruited married women, with at least 10 years of schooling, that lived in rural areas, and trained them to provide family planning services to their communities. Abortion is a taboo and is done in very risky way in Pakistan. [1] In the 1990s, women increasingly reported to wanting fewer children, and 24 percent of recent births were reported to be unwanted or mistimed. A report from 1884 states: The Kharrals are the most northerly of the great Ravi tribes, occupying a great portion of the land between Gugera and the Lahore district on both sides of the river, and extending some distance into the Gujranwala district. The reason given by the local authorities were poverty and local customs, where boys are preferred to girls. In 1990, the Pakistan government revised the colonial-era Penal Code of 1860 with respect to abortion. A study released in 2005, by the Population Council of Pakistan and the Guttmacher Institute, found that 890,000 abortions occur in Pakistan every year and, given that this data was collected mostly through women hospitalized for post abortion complications, one can expect this figure to be grossly understated. At least 77 people have been killed and 94 injured in northeast Pakistan after a series of avalanches destroyed and buried houses. This is exactly equal to the increase in number of women served by NGOs (supported by donors such as USAID, DFID, KfW, GIZ, David and Lucile Packard Foundation etc. [7] Zia differed from his predecessors in that he "made the religious-right-wing his political ideology." Thirdly, it had political utility for a military leader with no popular mandate to his leadership and in need of a development strategy. [1], In 1950, Pakistan's population reached 37 million people, making it the world's 13th most populous country. This was lead by the Edhi Foundation and Chhipa Welfare Foundation. The Indian Penal Code, enacted in 1860 and written in accordance with contemporaneous British law, declared induced abortion illegal.Induced abortion was defined as purposely "causing miscarriage". The death of the victim is viewed as a way to restore the reputation and honour of the family. [27], The preliminary DHS report does not report sources of FP services but analysis of government's contraceptive prevalence report suggests that 44% avail public sector services and that the role of NGOs has increased from 11% in 2006-7 to around 40%. One of Pakistan's largest problems is its rapidly expanding population and their limited access to necessary essentials such as readily available healthcare, doctor's, and basic sexual education. [17] Unfortunately, health care professionals do not wish to perform abortions either due to their own religious leanings, ethical stances or fear of stigmatization. [21][22][23] In spite of being a deeply conservative Muslim country, Pakistan is estimated to have one of the highest rates of abortion in the world, based on a 2012 study by the Population Council. It has the world's second-largest Muslim population.It is the 33rd-largest country by area, spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Volume 4, Number 6, 4-7. [7] His successor Yahya Khan did little more than watch as a civil war ripped apart East and West Pakistan in 1971. Instead, govt must encourage use of contraceptives through advertisement campaigns. This program emphasized maternal and child health, and also delivered family planning services. The unmodified word abortion generally refers to an induced abortion. Our antiquated Penal Code does however criminalise abortion seekers and providers. Laws may permit, prohibit, restrict, or otherwise regulate the availability of abortion.A few countries ban abortions entirely. An abortion that occurs without intervention is known as a miscarriage or "spontaneous abortion" and occurs in approximately 30% to 40% of pregnancies. The tragic adventure of Mirza and Sahiban is said to have been the cause of desperate quarrels. JPMA April 2013, Research and Development Solutions Policy Brief Series #1: Overview of Family Planning in Pakistan, Research and Development Solutions Policy Brief Series #4: Utilization and Costs of Family Planning in Pakistan, National Health Accounts of Pakistan 2005-6, Research and Development Solutions Policy Brief Series #13: Services and Uptake and Trends over time, Research and Development Solutions Policy Brief Series #43. Abortion is legal in Pakistan but only under ‘severe circumstances’, such as it being injurious to the mother’s health to carry the child. [a][5] While 96 percent of married women were reported to know about at least one method of contraception, only half of them had ever used it. [24][25] Since the PDHS 2006-7, operations of NGOs have increased but it appears that according to the supply data there has been no increase in supply of FP commodities[26] and that entry of the NGO Marie Stopes Society into FP services has displaced clients from other private sector, perhaps those that previously self procured commodities. Islamabad based think tank Research and Development Solutions reports that there is no quantitative evidence that any of these interventions have resulted in an increase in CPR in these communities. [citation needed], In 1977 Bhutto's Chief of Army Staff, General Zia ul-Haq, deposed the leader and declared martial law. A brief version of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012 was released in October 2013. [1][5] The rate of unwanted pregnancies is higher for women living in poor or rural environments; this is especially important since two-thirds of women live in rural areas. [7], Pakistani journalist/researcher Ayesha Khan has suggested various reasons for Ayub Khan's position on population control. World Health Organization and Global Health Workforce Alliance. Pakistan's high abortion and low contraception rates reflect a family planning policy in shambles, says Abdul Ghaffar Khan, director general of Pakistan's population program wing. Waheed, a member of the All-Pakistan Women's Association, began advocating for birth control when her maid died from an attempt to abort her own pregnancy. There is no abortion-specific legislation in Pakistan. [1] While only 22 percent of pregnant married women report being currently using a modern method of birth control and 8 percent reported to be using a traditional method, lack of widespread contraceptive use could be due to the lack breadth of the current family planning program. Before 1971. [1] Also in Pakistan's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper is the objective of increasing contraceptive use 57 percent by 2012. [1][5] The most commonly reported reasons for married women electing not to use family planning methods include the belief that fertility should be determined by God (28 percent); opposition to use by the woman, her husband, others or a perceived religious prohibition (23 percent); infertility (15 percent); and concerns about health, side effects or the cost of family planning (12 percent). This was lead by the Edhi Foundation and Chhipa Welfare Foundation. [5][6][7][8][9] Parent fertility remains incomplete until and unless the desired number of boys are born. `` induced miscarriage '' [ vague ] the USAID program was highly ineffective upper Ravi have... Prohibit, restrict, or less frequently `` induced miscarriage '' notably Punjab - that... 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